The Indian peninsula is one of the biggest in the world, and this lengthy coastline is responsible for a large portion of India's export and import. There are currently 13 major seaports in India, out of which 12 are operated under the government of India while 1 (Ennore Port) is run by a corporation. These ports are crucial to sustaining and improving India's developing economy. These ports in India are essential for handling a majority of India's trade. But apart from being trade centres, they also serve as tourist attractions as well.
Here is a list of 13 Major Seaports in India:
Located on the mainland of West mumbai is the Mumbai port. It is the largest port in India. It is a natural harbour and is 10-12 metre deep. It handles around one-fifth of India's foreign trade.
The Mumbai port is one of the busiest seaports in India. It plays a very important role in enhancing India's economy and trade affairs. The Mumbai harbour is also known as 'Front Bay', meaning gateway of India.
The port mainly specializes in the import of petroleum products, liquid chemicals and mineral oil and imports consist of cotton textiles, leather, tobacco, manganese, machinery, chemical goods.
Located in East of India in Andhra Pradesh between Chennai and Kolkata port, the Visakhapatnam port is located in a beautiful creek and is one of the major 12 sea ports in India. Lord Willingdon inaugurated the Rs.378 lakh Visakhapatnam port on December 19, 1933.
This port handles around 1.2 lakh tonnes of cargo every year. The Visakhapatnam port has three main harbours: the outer harbour, the inner harbour and the fishing harbour.
The port is located on a creek where the Narava Gedda joins the sea, a beautiful sight. The port is said to become more defined and modernised by 2016-2017 after an investment of Rs.13 crore.
The port deals with the trade of iron ore, pellets, coal, Alumina and oil.
The Chennai port, also known as the Madras port is the second largest port in the whole of India. It is the third oldest port in India that started its operations in 1881. It lies on the Coromandel coast in the Bay of Bengal and is Tamilnadu's main port and is the major reason for its stability.
The cargo handling of the Chennai port increased from 0.5 million in 1979-78 to 100 million in 2015-16, you can only imagine its drastic evolution and how necessary it is for the boom of Tamil Nadu.
The port is surrounded by both historic and modern lighthouses giving it a beautifying look. It is said that the Chennai port is said to expand its handling to 140 million in the near future.
Goa is a beautiful place and the main tourist attraction in India and hence the need for a port to make Goa flourish more through its trading affairs. The chairman of the Mormugao port is Shri I.Jayakumar. Mormugao port is a port located in Goa and is the main port of Goa and is plays an important role in its trade affairs. It was awarded the status of a major port in 1963 and it is the leading iron ore export location of India exporting a total of 50.02 million tonnes of iron ore every year.
Four new harbours are being made in the Vasco Bay to handle container traffic and cargo.
Port Blair is situated in the Andamans and Nicobar island and is one of the youngest major seaports in India. The government declared this port as a major one due to its contribution in boosting the ports of India to 13th place. The Port Blair port is the youngest sea port in India and is connected to the mainland of India through ship and flight.
The Kolkata port is situated 128 kms from Bay of Bengal on the bank of the river Hugli. This port handles all the goods coming mainly from Australia and South - East Asian countries. It is also known as the 'Gateway of Eastern India'. The Kolkata port is the only port having two dock systems called Kolkata docks and Haldia docks. It is one of the largest dry docks of India and also the oldest port that was made by the East India company. The Kolkata port is the most important centre in the trade of jute. It exports Jute products, tea ,coal, steel, iron ore, copper, leather etc and imports are mainly that of machinery, crude oil, paper, fertilizers and chemical products.
The Paradip port is one among the deep water seaports in India that is situated on the coast of Orissa. The depth of the port allows it to handle heavy and bulk containers. This port mainly deals with iron-ore and coal. Iron-ore is exported to Japan in huge quantities.
This port's exports are always double the amount of its imports. In 2003, the Paradip port's imports were only 6,991 thousand tonnes while its exports reached a total of 16,910 thousand tonnes. This port even has its own railway system to make transport easy. Recently an oil jetty that can handle up to 8 million tonnes of petroleum products and tankers of 85,000 DWT was constructed making the Paradip port even more efficient and better.
Tuticorin port is a new port that was recently constructed in Tamil Nadu and is one of the 13 major ports of India. It is an artificial harbour developed 8kms south of the old Tuticorin port. The port mainly trades with Sri Lanka and is properly connected by railways and roads. It is also the second largest port in Tamil Nadu. It is best for pearl fishery in the Bay of Bengal and is also known as the pearl city. It mainly deals with trade of coal, salt, food grains, edible oil, sugar, and petroleum products. In the near future its depth is to be increased to 12.8 metres from the current 10.7 metres and also to build an outer harbour.
A major port on the Arabian Sea, the Cochin port is one of the largest seaports in India and also the fastest growing one situated in Kerala. The Cochin port lies in between two islands namely Willingdon and Vallarpadam. Its export mainly consists of tea,coffee and spices while its exports consists of mineral oil and chemical fertilizers. It is also a centre for shipbuilding. In this port the imports always exceeds the exports. In 2003, its imports were 10,839 thousand tonnes while its imports were only 2,110 thousand tonnes.
Located 24 kms from the Chennai port on the Coromandel coast the Ennore port is the 12th major port of India. The port has both road and railway links to ease transport. It mainly deals with the transport of coal and that was its initial cause of development being the Tamil Nadu electricity board needed coal for its operations. The Ennore port now deals with the handling of over 16 million tonnes of coal per year. Apart from coal it also deals with the trade of iron ore, petroleum products and chemicals. The future prospects for this port is to build 3 multi-purpose berths and 5 containers. Ennore port is a privately owned port.