Chadar Trek: The Unique Frozen River Trek


Imagine walking across frozen sheets of ice, with mountains enveloped by snow on one side and a stream, slowly freezing or melting right on the other, as you walk alongside it. And while that seems fascinating, look up, ahead and around; to witness surreal beauty for as far as you can see. This is the Chadar Trek , the Frozen River Trek, only multiplied a hundred-fold.

Frozen Zanskar River, Chadar Trek

Chadar Trek (Source)

The Chadar Trek or The Frozen River Expedition is one of the most unique and challenging treks in India. The 6 day chadar trek across the frozen Zanskar River in Ladakh takes place during the latter part of January till end of February or sometimes even in the first week of March, depending on the weather.

The locals or Zanskaris as they are popularly known, usually take a road from to the Zanskar to Nerak and further for work which mostly consists of trading goods in the summers. During winters, the road is blocked and dangerous to travel so the locals tread along the Zanskar river which is frozen at this time. The thick blanket of ice that the Zanskar river forms resemblances a white blanket which in the local language is called ?Chadar?. Hence the trek along the frozen Zanskar River is known as the Chadar Trek.

Though, it seems a challenging trek, it isn't the most difficult; as it basically is a flat walk along the Chadar with minimal amounts of climbing. If you can walk for a couple of hours without much strain, you are good to go.

Short Itinerary for the Chadar Trek

Day 1Arrive at Leh
Day 2Drive to Chilling. Trek to Tilat Sumdo Camp
Day 3Trek to Tsomo Paldar
Day 4Trek to Dibb
Day 5Trek to Naerak Pullu
Day 6Trek from Naerak to Dibb
Day 7Trek to Shingra Koma
Day 8Trek to Chilling and drive back to Leh
Day 9Departure from Leh

Day 1: Arriving at Leh

Arriving at Leh, Chadar Trek

Arriving at Leh (Source)

Leh at this time is almost completely covered in snow. Hence, the only way to reach Leh is through flight. The temperature during the day is around -10 degrees and after sunset easily plummets to -15 to -17 or more. Your acclimatization starts here and if you can survive this cold, the trek would become a lot easier for you. Leh city is partly closed during this time and only shops pertaining to essential items are opened.

It is advisable to get everything you need before arriving at Leh, though you do get excellent woollen warmers and gears, in case you missed out any. It is necessary to spend a day or two in Leh before starting the frozen river trek, to let your body get completely acclimatized. Walk around the city a little to get used to the cold. Be careful of slipping on the roads which may be be coated with thin sheets of ice.

 Leh Travel Guide

Day 2: Chilling ? Tilat Do: Starting Point of Chadar Trek

Drive to Chilling (3 hours). Trek to Tilat Sumdo Camp (2km ? 1 hour)

Starting point of the chadar trek

En route Tilat ? Do (Source)

The starting point of your chadar Trek for the Base Camp is Chilling. Drive along the Leh-Srinagar Highway to reach Zanskar, a little ahead of Zanskar lies Chilling. The end of Chilling road is where the Chadar trek starts. Take small steps on the Chadar to get a feel of the ice beneath. The surface can be many things ? hard ice, freshly fallen snow, newly formed ice or something in between. Observe the locals and your guides over the initial two days, imitate their strides and don't digress on your own. Eventually, you'll understand the surface below your feet.

Tilat do is an hour's trek from Chilling, this will be your first campsite and a campfire will be thoroughly welcome. There are a few caves alongside that the locals use to spend the night. You would ideally be carrying your sleeping bags to keep you warm all night.

Tilat Do ? Shingra Koma

Snow Camping, Frozen river chadar trek

Camping for the night (Source)

Mornings at the chadar trek are quite cold because you just step out of your sleeping bags, after a warm cozy night's sleep. Though the sun is up by 7am, it'll be noon till you get any direct sunlight. A quick cup of hot tea, start your journey to the next campsite ? Shingra Koma. It is 10kms away from Tilat ?do. Shingra ? Koma gets its name from the abundance of a plant called Shingra that grows around the campsite.

It takes roughly 6-7 hours from Tilat ? do. As you trek along, observe the sounds of the ice underneath you. With a little attention and practice, you'll understand the thickness of the ice sheet and differentiate when it's a few days old and when it's just freshly formed. Midway, you can stop for lunch near one of the cave-like formations you would come across. Carrying packed food is futile; the cold will freeze everything up. Hot meals are your way to go. Maggi is a favourite option and it's the easiest to make. Sometimes, you'll find locals carrying pots of hot soup, the most delicious thing you could ask for on the Chadar trek. Don't forget to thank them!

Locals preparing food, chadar trek

Locals preparing food (Source)

Shingra Koma is a beautiful campsite, you'll reach early evening to watch the sunset over the mountains. The Zanskar river takes a sharp turn on the gorge, allowing you the view of the peaks on the horizon.

Shingra Koma ? Tibb ? Nerak

Shingra Koma - Tibb, Chadar trek

Shingra Koma ? Tibb (Source)

Shingra Koma to Tibb, the next stop is at a distance of 15 kms, which can be covered in roughly 7-8 hours. It's one of the longest days of the Chadar trek and also most beautiful. You'll come across several instances of little waterfalls frozen into dangling icicles. Midway through the day, you'll come across a big waterfall which is not entirely frozen and small prayer flags on the trees around mark this place.

It is said that Nerak once ran out of water and a holy man went to Kailash to pray for water for his people. On his way back he was carrying a pot of water with two fishes with the instructions of not keeping it down anywhere along the way. But he happened to put it at this spot and two fishes jumped right out to create this large waterfall. Legend has it, that this waterfall traces its origin back to Kailash. A couple of hours more and you arrive at the campsite. Tibb is a large camping area with caves alongside large enough to fit 7-9 people.

Waterfall icicles - Chadar Trek

Small waterfalls forming icicles (Source)


Towards Nerak

From Tibb to Nerak, there is a walk of 7 hours covering about 12 kms. This is the day you'll reach Nerak's gorgeous frozen waterfall. The chadar route here is quite beautiful too, with deep gorges and cliffs. By this time, you would be completely accustomed to the chadar trek and able to thoroughly enjoy the brilliant scenery. A little ahead from the massive waterfall is the Nerak pull or bridge. It's an old wooden bridge that can hold atleast 4 people at a time. You get a better view of the waterfall from here.

Nerak's massive waterfall, chadar trek

Nerak's massive waterfall (Source)

Nerak Pull or Bridge, chadar trek in Ladakh

Nerak Pull or Bridge (Source)

About 20mins ahead, you'll reach the Nerak campsite. The Nerak village is 2000ft higher, while the camping site is 200 ft higher than the river bed. Nerak is known for its cold nights and shivering winds. This would be your coldest night on the frozen river trek, with temperatures possibly dropping to -25 or even lower.


The Walk Back to Chilling ? End of Chadar Trek

Back to base camp, Chadar trek

Back to base camp (Source)

Nerak is your final point of the chadar trek and you start your return journey from here. Though it may seem that you'll be retracing your steps back to where you started. But the whole dynamics of the Chadar would have changed altogether. This is one of the uniqueness of this frozen river trek, old chadar breaks, there are snowfalls and new chadar forms constantly. It changes its form so often that you can't point a place you've just been, the day before. The Chadar trek is absolutely as unique as it sounds, but it is a far more fascinating and enriching experience that you can imagine.


Frozen Zanskar River, Chadar Trek

The Chadar Trek (Source)


Physical Fitness for Chadar Trek

The Chadar Trek is one of a kind remarkable experience. However, the hostile conditions and a staggering high altitude of 11,123 metres make it a difficult journey to undertake. In such situation, physical fitness becomes of utmost experience.

Cardiovascular endurance

Such high altitude trek requires strong lungs. For improving your endurance, you can begin by simply jogging every day- initially at a low pace and then increase your pace day by day. Set a target distance to be covered in a given amount of time, say 4 kilometre in 40 minutes. It will take time, but make sure to achieve the target successfully before the trek begins. You can also improve your breathing with activities such as cycling, swimming and climbing stairs without too many breaks in between.


Since you will have to cover a lot of distance, on uneven terrain at times and not to forget, with your heavy backpack, you will definitely want to strengthen your legs. Doing squats is a good way to ensure your legs become strong before the start of the trek. 3 sets of squats, with 8 squats in each set should be good enough to help your legs.

Apart from the above-mentioned activities, you can also do some stretching exercise- stretch your shoulders, hamstrings, quadriceps, hip flexors, lower back muscles regularly. This will help you in relaxing your muscles, especially when you climb up the slopes.

Packing List

The following should be considered while packing for Chadar Trek:

i) Basic Necessities

Trekking shoes: pack trekking shoes with good grip and ankle support, since the trek tends to be slippery at places. Make sure to pack the right trek shoe AND NOT sports shoe.
Backpack (40-60 litres): a backpack with strong straps and supporting frame is necessary. Don't forget the essential rain cover for your backpack.
Daypack (20 litres): in case of a crossover trek such as this, you need a daypack only if you plan to offload your backpack.

ii) Clothing

Since the Chadar is a 6-day trek, three sets of clothes should be enough.
Carry two sweaters and a padded jacket. If you are more vulnerable to the cold and if it does not become difficult for you to carry a heavier backpack, put another sweater or jacket.
Carry three light, cotton trek pants- one of which can act as tights that you can wear as an inner while trekking, especially on the Pass day.
Carry three lightweight, full sleeved t-shirts that will shield your neck and arms from sunburns. If you are too cold, wear two at a time for more insulation.
Carry enough thermals, both top and bottom to keep yourself warm at night. Keep them fresh and don't wear them while trekking.
Carry two pair of sports socks for the trek and a woollen pair for night.

iii) Accessories

Sunglasses- sunglasses are mandatory, especially in June when Hampta Pass will be full of snow and the reflected sunlight will make you go blind.
Suncap- since the sunray at that high an altitude comes unfiltered with UV rays, sun cap is necessary to protect your head.
Synthetic hand gloves- woollen hand gloves will get wet when you touch snow. Hence, synthetic gloves are preferable. If you feel cold, you can wear two gloves on one hand or add fleece glove as an inner layer.
Balaclava- to protect heat loss from your head
Torch/Head light- compulsive
Trekking Pole- a trekking pole is a great accessory that will help you share the weight of your baggage, as well as provide support while walking in difficult terrains and/or for a longer period of time.

You can include some other accessories like a sunscreen, lip balm, moisturiser, toilet paper, toothbrush and toothpaste. Keep two water bottles- one litre each. It is advisable to carry a set of cutlery, viz. a lunchbox, coffee mug and spoon, for hygienic reasons. Also, carry some polythene bags for wrapping wet clothes and compartmentalizing things.

iv) Medicines

Carry minimum one dose for each day, for fever, motion sickness, altitude sickness, allergy, painkiller, diarrhoea, acidity, indigestion. Carry crepe bandages, gauze, band-aids, cotton, ORS, antiseptic creams and pain relief spray or ointment.

Mandatory Documents:

  • Original and photocopy of government-approved ID proof
  • Medical certificate and disclaimer to be filled by the trekker
  • Medical certificate to be filled by the doctor

Best time to visit:

January to March

Traveller alert!

The Government has sanctioned a project to build a road connecting Zanskar to it's neighbours for better commuting and connectivity. The road will be built right on the Zanskar river. Which means chadar trek will only be possible for a few more years. So, you know what to do!

Just imagine being a part of this transcendental journey. Those pics will make for great conversations and stories back home. For Chadar Trek and many more?

You can also go through this travelogue to know more about Ladakh in Winter.






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