Amsterdam is very well connected with the world and the rest of Europe. Two large airlines have their base in Amsterdam - KLM and Jet Airways. Schiphol Airport is located around 10kms south-west of the city, and is very conveniently connected to the city - and also to other major cities in Netherlands - by a wide metro network.
Trains from across Europe, specially nearby Belgium, France and Germany are very frequent. There are a lot of bus services as well from nearby cities such as The Hague and Eindhoven, etc.
International flights can be taken from Bangalore, New Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai. There are 2-3 daily direct flights by Jet Airways and KLM to Amsterdam from all these Indian metros, each. While this is typically the most convenient connection, even at if a slightly higher cost, you can also take a flight by Etihad/Qatar/Emirates etc, since Amsterdam is well connected to all the major airports of the world.
The Netherlands comes under the Schengen visa area of the European Union. You can apply for your Schengen visa at the Dutch embassy, with all the documents that are required to do so, including a statement of purpose for visit. If you are visiting a friend or family in Amsterdam, a 'proof of sponsorship' form is required to be submitted by them. The Schengen tourist visa is typically valid only for the duration you applied for.
All major European airlines and several smaller ones offer flights to and from Amsterdam. Being the capital of Netherlands and an extremely popular European destination, Amsterdam has flight connectivity from the Americas, the Middle East, Asia and several African countries as well.
Renting cars in Europe is another popular way of getting around, especially if you plan to cover multiple cities. The roads all across Europe are a joy to behold. Routes and connectivity between Amsterdam and other cities is very well established, just like routes taken by buses.
Rail services are very popular all across Europe. They are considered to be the most convenient modes of transport, not taking too much time and also providing a cheaper alternative to air travels. Direct trains from cities like Paris, Berlin, Brussels, London, Manchester, and almost all other European cities are available.
Amsterdam has an elaborate and well-connected public transportation system. Various parts of the city are connected via buses, trams, ferries and also the metro, all of which use the OV Chipkaart smart card system. You can use the IJ ferries or use the canal system to cruise around the city. The centre of Amsterdam is best covered on foot, or even better on bicycles. Cars are not recommended due to narrow roads and expensive parking.
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