Baoli - Where Water Brought them Together


Baolis, or step-wells are known by various names in different cultures. Once a lifeline for those who stayed around them, today they are just another monument for the visiting tourists.

Agrasen-ki-Baoli, near Connaught Place, Delhi: Ugrasen  ki baoli


Baolis are my favourite when it comes to heritage buildings or monuments. No other monument, has ever talked to me like a Baoli. It told me about culture, people and about the necessity of water for human settlements ? why else would they create these beautiful structures around those  wells. Today, they are just pits and some are centuries old garbage bins!


Rajon-ki-Baoli, Near Mehrauli, Delhi: Stepwell near Mehrauli


My first visit to a Baoli was in Delhi, around a year back. A heritage walk through Mehrauli Archaeological Park introduced me to the first Baoli in my life: Rajon-ki-Baoli (above). Like a first love, it still remains my favourite Baoli. If you visit me in Delhi, I will take you there, like it or not.

A Baoli, or a step-well is built around a well. For those who haven't seen a well, its a few feet wide man made hole, dug deep into the earth (some 50+ feet or more deep), till enough water is found. Or you may say, a miniature but deep pond. There are many shapes and sizes of a Baoli.  Some circular, some rectangular, some are L-shaped and some are even helical! ? Baolis also tells us the tale of an advanced skill force from the bygone era.


L-shaped Amritavarshini Vaav, Ahmedabad, Gujarat: Ancient baoli in India

L-shaped Amritavarshini Vaav

Some Baolis are created on one side of a well. Adjacent to the well, they build a pond. Steps were constructed, leading into the pond, till few feet below the level of water (pic below: you can see my 6 ft tall friend standing on the steps for the height calculation; at Rajon-ki-Baoli).  They also constructed beautiful structures around this pond for people to relax and do their chores.

Rajon-ki-Baoli, Delhi: Places near Adham Khan's Tomb



In my limited understanding: as the water level decreases, they dig the pond deeper and made more steps to reach the pond. Every time a new level is created, older levels became changing rooms or places to sit and relax (see-below). Some Baolis even had mosques attached to it!


Rajon-ki-Baoli_Delhi_2: Rare pictures of Rajon Ki Baoli

pic above: @Zenrainman walking into the well of Rajon-ki-baoli through the connection between the well and pond.

He also told me how govt. dumped garbage into these monuments few decades back to prevent spreading of diseases through contaminated water

Rajon-ki-baoli, Mehrauli Archaeological Park, New Delhi: Architecture of Rajon ki Baoli

Rajon-ki-baoli, Mehrauli Archaeological Park, New Delhi

Water is usually drawn from the well by a bucket and pulley system while people could also walk down the steps to the pond for other activities. (pic below: Baoli at Farrukh Nagar, near Delhi-NCR; notice the platform on left end which was used to mount the pulley to draw water)

Baoli, Farrukh Nagar just outside Gurgaon: Ali Gosh Khan Baoli

Inner view of Baoli

pic below: Baoli at Paanchkuvan Darwaza, Ahmedabad;
Notice the stones laid for the people to stand and draw water?
also the opening on the left from the steps

Baoli at Paanchkuvan Darwaza, Ahmedabad, Gujarat: Baoli in Gujarat

Baoli at Paanchkuvan Darwaza

In case of circular Baolis, they have steps leading into a huge well instead of separate well and pond. A beautiful example of a circular Baoli is the one at Feroz Shah Kotla ( pic below). It still has water in it, even after its 700+ years of service.

Circular Baoli, Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi: Baoli in Delhi

Circular Baoli

There are also Octagonal shaped Baolis like the one in Farrukh Nagar just outside Gurgaon (Delhi-NCR), pic below.

Baoli, Farrukh Nagar just outside Gurgaon

Baoli Ghaus Ali Shah

This Baoli at Farrukh Nagar even has a tunnel (now sealed) to the near-by palace for the royal women to reach the Baoli! In fact, we had to use a tunnel to enter this Baoli, under a State Highway (pic below)!

Tunnel at Baoli, Farrukh Nagar near Gurgaon: Pictures of baoli near gurgaon

Tunnel at Baoli

In Ahmedabad, few months back, i chanced upon an L-shaped Baoli built behind one of Amdavad's (old Ahmedabad) Paanchkuvan gate. I went to Ahmedabad in search of their famous step-wells with beautiful stone works at Adalaj, but the first one i encountered was a very simple L-shaped ?Amritavarshini vaav?. From the construction, its clear that this step-well was for travellers and locals who passed through the gate and hence a very simple, and neat design, making the most out of the available space!


Amritavarshini vav, Adalaj Stepwell, Adalaj, Gujarat: stepwell(vav) in Gujarat

Adalaj Vav

pic above & below: the beautifully carved, huge step-wells of Adalaj near Ahmedabad.


I am not an avid archaeology or heritage enthusiast like many of my friends, its just that some monuments talk to me.

As I walked down the steps of the first Baoli in my life (Rajon-ki-Baoli, Mehrauli),
the grandeur of its construction was the last thing in my mind. 

Instead, I was travelling back in time, centuries back,
when this Baoli was filled with water.
I saw women drawing water from the well up above,
I saw them sitting together, engrossed in discussions
under the arches on either sides of the step-well.

I saw naked kids running up and down the steps,
while the priest offered his prayers with foot immersed in the water.

Then there are the washer men carrying the robes of nobles,
cows climbing down the steps to quench their thirst,
stray dogs sleeping by the shades?everyone i can think of in a village, was there.

That day, i hesitantly walked away from the Baoli to continue with the group. But ever since then, i visit Rajon-ki-Baoli once a month and drag few friends along with me every time i go. Obviously, very few appreciate it, rest of them just stare at me (i guess they are thinking of a psychiatrist for me).

But then i don't care, for me its a realization of how a civilization, which depended less on technology, lived a better life than us. It tells me how water and air is important to us, and they with their limited knowledge (centuries back) understood and adapted to this!

Baoli's are a treasure of stories and information, while it reveals a lot about past, it also gives food for ones thoughts about our present & future.

rest in a beautiful baoli: Inside of a Baoli

rest in a beautiful baoli

Someday, i hope to rest by a baoli (pic above) and travel through time endlessly. Have you been to one? Share a picture if you have one.


After a conversation with few foreign travellers in Udaipur, i realized that i should try to spread word about Baoli (even though i have a limited knowledge and a limited reach) as much as i can, so that these beautiful structures will be visited and may get preserved for our future generation. This post is my understanding about Baolis? and i would like to believe that it gave you some insight on these beautiful structures.

This post was originally written by Doulos Jose for his personal blog




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